Conventional science views parts of the world as phenomena classified according to shared properties, which are used to create mathematical relations or models that translate notions, fundamental or not, into refutable relationships by exposing them to the test of experience. There is another view of parts of the world, the view of related objects, the ‘systemic view’ of complexity and hierarchy, which is claimed to be pervasive and indivisible. The aim of this book is to show how to convert the systemic view into systems science by following the method of conventional science to model aspects of the immense variety and diversity of objects (natural, technical, living, human and their conceivable combinations) and their activities.
Having identified the fundamental notions, which are: qualitative as well as quantitative properties, objects and their relations, and interactions by means of flow of energy or information, the latter are organised into inferential structures using mathematics of ‘ordered pairs’ and predicate logic statements capable of carrying mathematics and/or measures of uncertainties. These structures are constructed to enable relations or energy and/or information to propagate, to produce an outcome as emergent property or final state, the possibilities of occurrence of which can now be investigated. A design methodology, elicitation of requirements and a view and design of organisations and management are introduced using the inferential structures.
Systematic thinking about actual, and as yet nonexistent, future scenarios, including human activities, has become possible. However, the unpredictability of living in particular human behaviour introduces additional uncertainty into, and opens debate about, the use of a formal method.