For a long time people have been contacting parts of the world through their sense organs which feed sensations for interpretations into their brain/mind assembly so as to produce views of or beliefs about these parts. People also create and communicate views to others. The means of contact and communication are called 'things that stand for other things' like images (pictures, sculptures, gestures, signs etc) and symbols (natural language, music and mathematics) which consist of a medium carrying meaning. The development of 'things' over thousands of years reflects the evolution of descriptive, explanatory and predictive qualities of beliefs. 'Heated bones', 'tarot cards' and many others and ultimately 'quantitative properties of conventional science' illustrate this development.
Conventional science views parts of the world as phenomena classified according to shared properties which are used to create mathematical relations or models which translate notions, fundamental or not, into refutable relationships by exposing them to test of experience. There is another view of parts of the world, the view of related objects, the 'systemic view' of complexity and hierarchy which is claimed to be pervasive and indivisible.
The aim of this book is to show how to convert the systemic view into systems science by following the method of conventional science so as to model aspects of the immense variety and diversity of objects (natural, technical, living, human and their conceivable combinations) and their activities. This is carried out by identifying features considered fundamental and pervasive such as the notions of properties, objects and their relations or interactions in terms of flow of energy or information, together with the symbolism of formalised natural language supplemented by mathematics.