Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Currently, the causes of MS are still unclear and the cure remains symptomatic, while the effectiveness of treatment varies widely among individuals. The clinical features and neurological defects derived from this progressive neurological disease are diverse since MS may affect the human central nervous system (CNS)) at all levels from the brain to the end of the spinal cord. Immunopathogenesis of MS involves many steps, including activation of peripheral leucocytes against putative CNS antigens, activated leucocytes with inflamed cerebral endothelial cells, the migration of activated lymphocytes and macrophages through the endothelium to the CNS environment, and further propagation of a massive immune response within the CNS. Such large-scale immune activation leads to loss of the myelin-oligodendrocyte complex. Various types of immune cells and mediators of the immune-inflammatory response actively contribute to MS pathogenesis. Genetic factors are also thought to play a central role in the development of most forms of MS. Axonal degeneration and neuronal loss are the core components of irreversible and permanent CNS atrophy and disability in MS.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current MS situation as researchers try to understand the process and develop treatments that can slow or stop the disease, possibly repair the damage, alleviate specified symptoms, and improve the abilities of MS patients to function in everyday life. Various biological holistic approaches have been shown to slow disease progression in some patients, and the recovery rate of cellular mechanisms in the brain and spinal cord has been accelerated, increasing the possibility of achieving complete balance of the disease state.
The panel reviews the background, focusing on novel strategies that are most likely to understand the biological mechanisms of recovery and translate findings into alternative comprehensive approach to the MS management. The modality of such complementary therapies adds a new dimension, geared to further improvement in the management and sustain the acquired long-term results of MS. This book will be necessary to researchers, research funders, healthcare advocates of MS research and treatment, and interested patients and their families.