“In his richly researched study of the political culture of the Second International before the First World War, Kevin Callahan reminds us that socialist internationalism rested on far more than the rhetoric of solidarity alone. From the rituals and symbolics of socialist spectacle to all aspects of the movement’s “demonstration culture,” the popular democracy of the socialist parties rested on the inventively organized occupying of public space. With admirable concreteness Callahan takes us inside the careful proceduralism of socialist activity, both country by country and in the International per se, while showing just how elaborately the public performance of socialist unity was achieved.” Geoff Eley, The History of the European Left, 1850-2000 (Oxford University Press, 2002) and Professor of History, University of Michigan

“Kevin Callahan breaks new ground in this fascinating cultural history of the Socialist International and its mass-based political culture before World War I. In an important contribution to the literature on protest tactics, he shows how the SI used marches, resolutions, manifestos, congresses, ceremonies, rituals, symbolism, antiwar rallies, and other impressive political spectacles to create a “demonstration culture.” These cultural practices forged common ties among socialists from diverse backgrounds and communicated the SI’s commitment to humanity, international fraternity, social justice, and universal peace. Callahan also provides a valuable reassessment of the SI’s record on war and peace before August 1914. Showing that hundreds of thousands of workers mobilized against war in July 1914, he argues that socialists met WWI with resignation, not patriotism and jubilation. Based on multinational archival research, this well-written, interdisciplinary study will interest historians, political scientists, sociologists, and communication and social movement scholars.” Scott H. Bennett, Professor of History, Georgian Court University